Info Teknologi » Orange Noodle Made from Sweet Potato Beta 1 Variety and Domestic Wheat Flour Dewata Variety

20200229-mi mi mi5

Noodle is increasingly consumed in Indonesia due to its acceptable taste to almost age groups, affordable price and practical serving. The main ingredient of noodle is wheat flour, which constituted the largest portion of wheat flour use in Indonesia (55%) compared to cake and breads (20%), snacks and biscuits (15%), household and fried foods (10%). As a sub-tropical crop, wheat is not well cultivated in Indonesia. Therefore, about 12 million tons of wheat grains are imported annually. In fact, efforts for wheat cultivar cultivation and domestication have been conducted in selected high land areas, such as in Pangalengan (West Java), Dieng, Salatiga (Central Java) and Tosari (East Java). One of the domestic varieties that has been released in 2003 was Dewata, a domestication variety of DWR 162 from India with a potential yield of 2.96 t/ha. The utilization of wheat flour derived from this domestic variety therefore needs to be promoted.

Beta 1, an orange-fleshed sweet potato variety contains considerably high beta carotene (12,031 µg /100 g fresh weight), which has high pro-vitamin A and anti oxidative activities. The presence of phenolic compounds as antioxidants, dietary fiber and relatively low glycemic index (GI) of its carbohydrate, also contribute to functional food properties of sweet potato. Therefore, processing of Beta 1 into a variety of food products is warranted in terms of promotion the use of local food sources as well as to decrease the use of wheat flour.

In this study, we prepared dry noodle form blended of orange-fleshed sweet potato mash/paste (Beta 1 variety) with domestic wheat flour (Dewata variety) with a ratio of 40:60, while imported flour was used as a check. The domestic wheat flour (13.83% dw) had slightly higher protein content than that of imported flour (11.66% dw). Wheat flour with protein content of 10-13% is desirable for noodle ingredient as gluten, the predominant protein in wheat flour plays an important role in dictating noodle elasticity and texture. However, the whiteness level of domestic wheat flour (60.4%) was considerably lower than that of imported wheat flour (71.33%) 1). This may due to dark colour of the seed bran (genetic factor) that could be partly involved in the flour after polishing and milling process. Blending this darker wheat flour with other colored ingredients, such as orange or purple sweet potato mash expectedly would improve the appearance of the products.

The moisture content of noodles prepared from blended of sweet potato mash with either domestic or imported wheat flour were around 9-10%, slightly higher than those derived from 100% of wheat flours (Table 1). However, the values were yet below the maximum level (14.5%) established by the National standard quality for instant noodle (SNI 01-3551-2000). The noodles prepared from domestic wheat flour and sweet potato mash showed higher ash contents, resulting in darker colors of the noodles compared to those processed from imported wheat flour (Fig. 3a, 3b, 3c, and 3d).

Table 1. Chemical composition and yield recovery of dry noodles prepared from different wheat flour origins and noodle formulas

Wheat flour origin Formula of noodle ingredient Moisture

(%)

Ash

(%dw)

Protein

(%dw)

Yield Recovery

(%)

Domestic wheat flour 100% wheat flour 8.00 1.59 18.86 104.56
40% sweet potato mash 9.91 1.59 13.16 140.94
imported wheat flour 100% wheat flour 7.96 1.05 18.13 97.13
40% sweet potato mash 10.08 1.39 11.15 136.58

dw = dry weight

The use of sweet potato mash decreased the protein content of the noodles, however higher value was noted in the noodle prepared from domestic flour (Table 1) as a result of higher protein content in this flour compared to imported flour. However, the protein content of noodles made from blended of sweet potato mash either with domestic or imported wheat flour had already met the National quality standard requirement for dry noodle, which is minimal 8% (fw) or about 8.7% (dw) (SNI 01-3551-2000). Sweet potato noodles also gave higher yield recovery (dry noodle weight) compared to those made from 100% of wheat flours, reflecting the potential profit of using sweet potato mash as a wheat flour substitute.

In terms of sensorial attributes, the dry noodle and wet (boiled) noodle were tested. The colours of both dry and wet noodles prepared from 100% of domestic wheat flour were moderately disliked by panelists (Table 2 and Fig. 3c). However they became slightly liked when blended with 40% orange-fleshed sweet potato paste (Table 2 and Fig. 3d), indicating that the dark color of noodle prepared from domestic flour can be improved through sweet potato mash substitution. Interestingly, similar scores (like) were given by panelists for the colours of both noodles made from 100% of imported wheat flour and blended with sweet potato mash (Table 2, Fig. 3a and Fig 3b). This suggests that wheat flour substitution with 40% of sweet potato mash likely did not affect the color acceptance of the noodle. Similar findings were also seen for aroma and taste of the wet noodle that was slightly liked and moderately liked for noodle blended with domestic and imported wheat flour, respectively. In terms of texture, it was slightly elastic for noodle prepared from domestic wheat flour blended with sweet potato mash, while panelists marked fairly elastic for noodle blended with imported wheat flour. Differences in gluten content, starch characteristics and pasting properties may affect the noodle texture and elasticity.

Table 2. Sensorial attributes of dry and wet noodles prepared from different wheat flour origins and noodle formulas

Wheat flour origin formula of noodle ingredient dry noodle wet noodle
Colora Aromaa Colora Aromaa Tastea Textureb
Domestic wheat flour 100% wheat flour 2.1 2.6 2.3 2.5 2.5 3.3
40% sweet potato flour 3.3 2.8 2.7 2.7 3.2 3.4
Imported wheat flour 100% wheat flour 4.2 3.9 4.4 3.7 3.3 3.6
40% sweet potato flour 4.0 3.6 3.6 3.8 3.8 3.5

Score:

a Acceptance toward color, aroma, texture, and taste: (1) Dislike very much, (2) Dislike moderately, (3) Like slightly, (4) Like moderately, (5) Like very much

Texture : (1) Very firm, (2) Firm, (3) Elastic slightly, (4) Elastic, (5) Very elastic

This study highlighted the promising use of orange-fleshed sweet potato mash to substitute 40% of both domestic and imported wheat flours in dry noodle making. Blending the domestic wheat flour with sweet potato paste could improve the color of the noodle produced relative to that of 100% domestic wheat flour, thus needs to be further developed in commercial scales. This proportion of sweet potato mash was considerably higher relative to the use of sweet potato flour that only could replace 10-20% of wheat flour use in noodle preparation. It is estimated that consumption of 100 g of boiled such orange noodle would meet approximately 46% and 91% of the minimum Recommended Daily Allowences (RDA) of beta carotene for adult and children, respectively.

Orange-fleshed sweet potato of Beta 1 variety

Orange-fleshed sweet potato of Beta 1 variety

The polished-wheat grains of Dewata, a domestic wheat variety

The polished-wheat grains of Dewata, a domestic wheat variety

Noodle prepared from 100% of imported wheat flour

Noodle prepared from 100% of imported wheat flour

Noodle prepared from blended of imported wheat flour with 40% of orange-fleshed sweet potato paste

Noodle prepared from blended of imported wheat flour with 40% of orange-fleshed sweet potato paste

Noodle prepared from 100% of domestic wheat flour

Noodle prepared from 100% of domestic wheat flour

Noodle prepared from blended of domestic wheat flour with 40% of orange-fleshed sweet potato paste

Noodle prepared from blended of domestic wheat flour with 40% of orange-fleshed sweet potato paste

Erliana Ginting dan Rahmi Yulifianti